Thus, the Inflexible was undoubtedly the most graceless ship to date, especially from bow and stern when the great beam was accentuated by narrow superstructure flanked by the huge turrets which showed up like haystacks. Whatever lines she
may have had were broken up by every sort of protuberance possible with two ugly funnels to complete a thoroughly ungainly Profile.
” (British Battleships by Dr. Oscar Parkes, Archon Books 1972, at page 254.

Before the advent of the American Civil War or the
USS Monitor, Captain Cowper Coles saw the value of a turret. In September 1861 a Coles turret was installed on the battery HMS Trusty for test purposes. The results were very good. They proved
that a gun in a turret could fire faster, more accurately, fewer crewmen were needed and they were better protected than the same gun firing from a broadside position. The Admiralty ordered the
Prince Albert, an iron hulled coast defense ship in
February 1862 and ordered the conversion of the wooden three deck ship of the line,
Royal Sovereign to be converted to an iron clad low freeboard coast defense turret ship in April 1862. The Admiralty recognized that these ships were not suitable for
ocean operations. The Chief Contractor, Edward Reed, worked on projects for the Admiralty, while Captain Coles aggressively pressed for a turret ship of his design. In 1865 a Committee was appointed to look at the value of turret equipped seagoing
warships. The committee looked at the views of both Reed and Coles. In 1866 the Admiralty asked Reed to prepare a design for a fully rigged seagoing turret ship with two turrets containing two 25-ton (12-inch) guns and armor of 7-inches. The result
was the
HMS Monarch, 8322-tons displacement full load, which proved very successful in service. For a time Monarch was the fastest battleship in the world under steam, while under sail she was fast but uncontrollable. Coles criticized the design by
stating that the turrets and armor belt were too high and that the raised forecastle deck should be removed. The press and politicians clamored for Coles to be given a chance. The Admiralty figuratively threw up their hands and authorized the building of
a fully rigged seagoing battleship with two twin gun 25-ton (12-inch) turrets on  Coles’ theories and Laird was approved as the builder. Reed made numerous warnings to Laird Shipbuilding that the freeboard of the ship they were building was too low.
Laird ignored the warnings. The result was the ill-fated
HMS Captain, 7767-tons displacement full load, which was launched in March 1869 and completed in March 1870.
The life span of HMS Captain was very short. The Press showered praise on the ship when she entered service. After a couple of voyages the HMS Captain left Portsmouth on August 4, 1870 to join the fleet. On September 6, 1870 the fleet was off
Cape Finisterre, France in heavy weather under sail. The sea was washing over her freeboard of her upper deck.  The deck edge went under water when the ship heeled to 14 degrees. As the wind rose in the evening the fleet was ordered to reduce sail.
At midnight the wind strengthened again and the Captain heeled to 18 degrees. Captain Burgoyne ordered the topsail to be cut free but before this could be done the ship capsized. Only 17 crewmen survived, while the rest of the 490 crewmen and
Captain Cowper Coles, who was aboard
HMS Captain that night, drowned. Edward Reed resigned in the clamor that followed, although he was right in his warnings about the Captain.In the following inquiry it was determined that the maximum heel
that
Captain could have experienced before capsizing was 20 degrees, while Reed’s Monarch could take up to 38 degrees. The turret design of the USS Monitor also had a significant impact upon British warship design in the late 1860s and early
1870s. However, the major problem of the
Monitor’s turret was that water could come into the ship’s hull at the base of the turret. The loss of the Monitor herself and the USS Weehawken to flooding over the low freeboard of the ships was a red flag
warning about the dangers of a low freeboard monitor, which the Laird Brothers and Captain Coles ignored in
HMS Captain.

Edward Reed thought that he had a solution. He proposed an armored breastwork that would surround the turret, the funnels and other openings in the armored deck. This breastwork would be high enough to significantly limit any intake of water into
the ship. Reed designed a series of breastwork monitors. The
HMVS Cerberus was built the State of Victoria in Australia in 1867. For the Royal Navy he designed the HMS Cyclops in 1870 and HMS Glatton in 1871. For the HMS Devastation of
1871, Reed employed the breastwork monitor concepts a step farther by using a higher freeboard in addition to the breastwork, as well as higher speed. The breastwork monitors were never considered as ocean going vessels and the loss of
HMS
Captain
only strengthened that conviction. Reed’s last design was in the process of being built when the Captain was lost. Worked stopped at once on the proposed HMS Fury. The new Director of Naval Construction (DNC) was Nathaniel Barnaby,
who went to school with Edward Reed and was Reed’s brother-in-law.  Barnaby reworked the design with his assistant William White and changed the name from
Fury to Dreadnought. The Dreadnought had a higher freeboard than the previous
breastwork monitors but it was still a monitor design. The 1873 Estimates called for the construction of a new
Fury (ie Dreadnought), which Barnaby would design. The result would be a warship so stupendous in excess, that it was one of the few
warships that are world changing.
The Admiralty’s policy on the main gun ordnance was to maintain the status quo. The thought was that increasing gun sizes would render existing ships obsolete sooner than if the status quo was maintained. The 12-inch gun (38-ton) was the
standard and the Admiralty thought that it was just fine for battle. The Italian Navy had other ideas. The Italian fleet was rather weak. The only turret ship that they had was sunk at the disastrous Battle of Lepanto against Austria. It went to Italy to
upset the applecart and initiate the era of the Monster Guns. With France on one side and Austria on the other, the Italian Navy needed a trump card. The Italian designer was Benedetto Brin and he came up with a design that emphasized firepower.
One of Brin’s first designs was for a turret ship longer and wider than British ships, with a full armor belt and carrying four 38-ton (12-inch) guns in two twin turrets. However, allowances were made to mount heavier guns. After the design started
Armstrongs announced that they could produce 50-ton (15-inch) guns. Brin was promptly allowed to incorporate the Armstrongs (60-ton) 15-inch gun in the new ship, which entailed an entire redesign. The belt was replaced by an armored citadel
and the two turrets were placed midship in echelon to theoretically allow cross deck fire. The only protection at the bow and stern was compartment subdivision. The citadel had 17-inches of wrought iron armor and the turrets had 18-inches. An
underwater armored deck was added to keep water out of the bottom of the hull. Then Armstrongs announced that they could produce an 100-ton (17.7-inch) gun and that was later adopted for the Italian battleships, which became the
Duilio and
Dandolo. The citadel was further modified to 21.5-inch lower belt with 17-inches of wrought iron for the upper citadel and 16-inches for the forward and aft bulkheads. The Duilio was laid down in 1872. Another consequence of the Italian duo was
to kill the idea of broadside gun battleships.

The Royal Navy, the press, and the public were alarmed. How could this happen? A minor naval power with only decades from the founding of a unified Italy besting the best that the Royal Navy possessed, it was an affront to all that was holy and
Her Majesty, the Queen Empress. The British 1873 programme had the answer, authoring only one battleship but of the highest offensive and defensive capabilities. The battleship was
HMS Inflexible and it would be Nathaniel Barnaby’s signature
design. For the time, the
Inflexible would set the bar for battleship designs. Barnaby’s initial design with alternative designs was submitted to the Comptroller on June 3, 1873. One of his most radical designs has ten 35-ton (12-inch) guns in barbettes
with no gun house but with a seven gun broadside. Twin turrets carrying a 60-ton (15-inch) gun were originally planned, although the gun had not been developed by Woolwich, although Armstrongs had them. The Royal Navy was legally compelled
to buy ordnance from Woolwich and was precluded from buying from Armstrongs. Woolwich developed and produced an 80-ton (16-inch) hydraulic muzzle loading gun in 1875, a year after
Inflexible was laid down. Since the Inflexible was
designed with flexibility in the matter of the main guns, the new 16-inch Woolwich gun was ordered for the ship. No redesign was need, as the effects of carrying heavier guns resulted in only one foot more draft and an increase of 800-tons to the
displacement. After the Admiralty chose the Woolwich 16-inch gun, the Italian Navy substituted the Armstrong 100-ton (17.1-inch) gun for the Armstrong 60-ton (15-inch) gun. The Italians clearly wanted to keep the largest gun in the world trophy.
The armor scheme of
Inflexible was modeled on the Duilio design but with the armor confined to a citadel and only an armored deck forward and aft. Inflexible also had a much higher freeboard forward and aft than Duilio, although the freeboard
was lower (10-feet) midship where the turrets were located.
On February 24, 1874 the HMS Inflexible was laid down at Portsmouth. She was launched on April 27, 1876 and completed on October 18, 1881. She was 344-feet overall (OA) in length 320-feet between perpendicular bulkheads (PP), 75-feet beam,
and a draught of 26-feet 5-inches with a displacement of 11,880-tons. The armament was four 16-inch (80-ton) MLR firing a projectile of 1,684 pounds and six 20pdr guns with two 14-inch  submerged torpedo tubes, which were fitted for the first
time. Also carried were two carriages to launch torpedoes over the side or from chutes at the bow or stern, a scheme not ripe for success. Rate of fire was one round every two and a half to four minutes and the shell could penetrate 23-inches of
wrought iron at 1,000-yards. Since they were muzzle loaders, the gun muzzles were depressed below an angled armored deck, which sheltered an ammunition lift and hydraulic ram. The armor scheme set a new record, which has never been broken.
The waterline of the citadel, which was 110-feet by 75-feet, had a full two feet (24-inches) of wrought iron in two 12-inch plates with 11-inches of teak between the plates.  The upper citadel was 20-inches in thickness while the forward bulkhead 22-
inches and the aft bulkhead 18-inches. The turrets had 17-inch compound armor, which was used for the first time. The below waterline armored deck was 3-inches thick, while the conning tower received 12-inches. The unarmored hull was still one
inch thick. The power plant consisted of twelve boilers operating with 60 psi fed steam to two sets of 3 cylinder inverted compound engines manufactured by Elder & Co. Producing 8,407 horsepower for the two shafts with two bladed propellers.
Maximum speed was 14.75-knots light.
Inflexible did have sails for the two mast brig rig but it was limited to pose no danger to stability under sail.  Captain John Fisher, Inflexible’s first commander, said of the sailing rig that it, “had as much effect
upon her in a gale of wind as a fly would have on a hippopotamus,
” She carried two 60-foot torpedo-boats for local use. Other firsts for Inflexible were electric lighting and anti-rolling tanks, which proved to be ineffective. The Inflexible was very
stubby and had a length to width ratio of 4:1.

The unarmored portion of the hull used cork filled cofferdams to add stability to the ship’s ends. At first the press was wildly excited by the
Inflexible and her staggering statistics but then former Chief Contractor and current member of Parliament,
Edward Reed, became
Inflexible’s turd in the punch bowl. Reed had visited the Italian yard building the Duilio. He returned to London and immediately criticized the Inflexible design. He claimed that it was unsafe because it was based on the same
principles used for the Italian battleships, which he also declared unsafe in stability. Although Reed had no responsibility in the loss of
HMS Captain, he was probably still reacting to the consequences he endured because of her loss. He claimed that the
cork would wash out with battle damage and stability lost. His claims were based on all cork cofferdams being compromised and all of the cork washed into the sea. Barnaby said, “
We must look upon the ship as a powerful armoured floating castle
with two indestructible unarmoured raft ships attached to its two ends. In this combination each of the separate parts could float safely if it were cut off from the others from keel to gunwale and were intact.
” (British Battleships of the Victorian
Era
by Norman Friedman, Seaforth Publishing 2018, at pages 156-157)  A committee was appointed to examine the stability of Inflexible and in their report of December 4, 1877 upheld Barnaby’s position that his design was stable with battle damage to
the unarmed ends of the ship. This ruckus, along with the Committee on
Inflexible, significantly delayed the completion of the battleships. Reed apparently had some ambivalent views on Inflexible because on January 1, 1877 Edward Reed wrote a letter
to the Times. In it he described the
Inflexible, “...a huge weapon of war, animated and put into activity in every part by steam and steam alone. The main propelling engines are worked by steam, a separate steam engine starts and stops them;
steam ventilates the monster, steam weighs the anchors, steam steers her, steam pumps her out if she leaks, steam loads the gun, steam trains it, steam elevates or depresses it. The ship is a steam being..
.” (Warrior to Dreadnought by D.K.
Brown, Chatham Publishing 1997, at page 55)
Upon completion the HMS Inflexible steamed to join the Mediterranean Fleet. Her first commander was a young officer who had jumped over many in the Captain’s List to be appointed commander of this megalith. His name was Captain John “Jacky”
Arbuthnot Fisher, later to become First Sea Lord. Fisher was appointed to the
Invincible on January 14, 1881. Fisher was Flag Captain on HMS Northampton and Commander Wilmot Fawkes was his second in command. Fawkes wrote that day,
Very sad news for the ship, but very good news for Captain Fisher...He is appointed to the Inflexible, the new large ironclad. It is a VERY great compliment to him, as those ships are generally given to men very much senior to him...but he is
very sorry to leave the ship...there are nothing but long faces in her.
” (Infighting Admirals by Geoffrey Penn, Leo Cooper Publishing 2000, at page 24)

From July 11, 1882 to the 13th, the British Mediterranean Fleet bombarded Alexandria, which initiated the Anglo-Egyptian War. Under the command of Admiral Beauchamp Seymour, whose nick name was
The Ocean Swell, the fleet had steamed to
Alexandria in support of the Khedive Tewfik Pasha, who had ties with the British and the French, against a revolt of the anti-European Ahmed Urabi. On June 11 anti-Christian Riots started in Alexandria, 150 Europeans were murdered, the rest of
Europeans fled the city, and a Urabist force occupied and began to strengthened harbor forts. Seymour issued an ultimatum for them to stop their activities but this was ignored and Seymour ordered a bombardment of the forts.
HMS Inflexible
participated in this bombardment. Seymour had his battleships in two groups with
Inflexible placed between these groups so that she could assist either group. This activity forced the hand of Prime Minister William Gladstone, who committed the
British Army for an invasion of Egypt. The British Army didn’t leave Egypt until 1956.
Inflexible’s fire impressed observers with the accuracy. Seymour signaled Inflexible, “Well done Inflexible”. She fired eighty-eight 16-inch shells at the forts of
Ras-el-Tin, Mex, Ada, and Pharos. In turn she was damaged more than any other ship in the fleet. One 10-inch shell struck the unarmored portion of the hull and deflected upwards to damage ship’s boats and kill two crewmen. The concussion of
firing the 16-inch guns also damaged the superstructure and destroyed ship’s boats. Seymour ordered Fisher ashore the next day to command the land forces in a cordon around Alexandria. Fisher departed
Inflexible on August 27, 1882 because of
illness. When he returned to Britain he was introduced to William Gladstone. Gladstone took a swipe at
Inflexible, “Portentous weapons! I really wonder the human mind can bear such a responsibility!” Fisher replied to the Prime Minister, “Oh, Sir,
the common vulgar mind doesn’t feel that sort of thing.

In 1885 Inflexible returned to Portsmouth to receive a refit. In the refit the 20pdr secondary guns were replaced by 4-inch 22 cwt breach loaders and in 1897 these were replace by 4.7-inch QF guns. Another modification made in the 1885 refit was
the removal of the worthless sail rig and addition of fighting tops to the masts.
Inflexible was place in reserve in February 1885, where she remained until 1887 for a fleet review and maneuvers in 1888 and 1889. In 1886 the 12-inch Breach Loading
Rifle made its appearance. The breach loaded gun fired at a much greater rate than
Inflexible’s muzzle loading guns and its appearance spelled the end of the battleships with muzzle loading guns, no matter how big. In November 1893 she returned to
Portsmouth to serve four years as port guard ship. She was posted to Fleet Reserve in October 1897 and in November 1901 in Dockyard Reserve. The
Inflexible spent only seven years in fleet service. In 1900 Inflexible, which by this time was only
capable of 10.5-knots at best, was scheduled for modernization with 6-inch guns replacing the 4.7-inch guns and masts with two tops each. The Portsmouth Yard jumped the mark and constructed the masts but the modernization never occurred, as
the ship was considered too old for the expenditure of the funds for the modernization. The completed masts were deposited on a coal wharf, where they remained for years.
Inflexible remained in reserve until sold for scrap on September 15, 1903.

(Bulk of history from:
British Battleships by Dr. Oscar Parkes, Archon Books 1972; British Battleships 1889-1904, by R.A. Burt, Naval Institute Press 1988; British Battleships of the Victorian Era by Norman Friedman, Seaforth Publishing
2018;
Infighting Admirals by Geoffrey Penn, Leo Cooper Publishing 2000; Warrior to Dreadnought by D.K. Brown, Chatham Publishing 1997)
The Combrig 1:700 Scale HMS Inflexible 1881 Fit - When I saw the Free Time Hobbies announcement of the new Combrig stock that they had in stock, not only did I see the HMS Cressy, but also I saw the 1881 HMS Inflexible. This is another
one of the
Combrig kits that was eagerly anticipating. It certainly lives up to my expectations. I have always been fascinated with this Nathaniel Barnaby design, as it still holds the record of the thickest armor ever fitted to a warship and inaugurated
Monster Guns into the Royal Navy. The kit is multi-media with resin and brass photo-etch parts, plus the upgraded color
Combrig instructions, as with their Cressy kit. About the only preparation that one has to make is to clean up the waterline. The hull
was clearly cast on a thin resin wafer and tiny nibs of the wafer are still on the waterline.

Since the
Inflexible has such a low freeboard, there are limited hull sides detail. At the bow there are gun shutters on both sides for a couple of the above water torpedo tubes. These shutters have both vertical and horizontal hinge detail. There is another
position midship that has one shutter with vertical hinges and one with horizontal hinges. They may be more torpedo firing positions for torpedoes, but I am puzzled by their purpose. Instead of portholes the hull sides are adorned by a row of square
windows, which certainly adds interest. Two sets of climbing rungs are on both sides, as well as some other small protuberances. The square windows continue on the stern and the side detail concludes with a strongly cut in stern.
The deck detail packs the punch. I’ll start midships because that is the focal point around the large, squat turrets. You can’t miss the corrugated appearance of the deck armor on one side of each turret. If you look at this area in profile, you’ll see that it
is raised up from the surrounding deck. The
Inflexible carried 16-inch muzzle loading rifles. The hydraulic loading mechanism was underneath this raised armor glaces. To load, the gun muzzles would be lowered to align with loading chutes underneath
the glaces and the hydraulic rammers would push the shells home. Two access ladders are also present in this area with inclined ladders descending into the wells. The oval recess between the turret positions is the locater outline for the deck house
supporting the flying deck, which connects the forward superstructure with the aft superstructure. At bow and stern is the standard
Combrig wooden deck planking. It is good but still lacks butt end detail. The bow is dominated by the locater outline
for the forward superstructure. The deck is further detailed by 16 coal scuttles, eight on each side of the superstructure. The deck of the stern has the same detail as the bow but throws in another twist. As with the bow, there is a locater outline,
shallow well for the aft superstructure with ten coal scuttles, five on each side. As an additional flourish there are 24 small circles, much smaller than the coal scuttles, which have raised rims and are 12 per side. This another feature whose purpose I
am unfamiliar. Who knows what craziness Nat came up with in his landmark design.

The two large turrets are the only two parts cast separately that were not on a runner. The turret sides have just the well indented gun openings and a rear face door for detail but their crowns are crammed with interest. These include three cupolas at
the rear of the crown, access hatches at the front of the crown and what I assume are two large ventilator doors with rivet detail in the middle of the crown. Three parts are on a thin resin wafer. By far the largest is the flying deck that crosses over the
turrets and joins the forward superstructure with the aft superstructure. This part has solid bulkheads, except for two open positions for search light platforms. At first I thought that these bulkheads represent railing covered by canvas dodgers but after
examining the R.A. Burt profile and the Perkins’ profiles, I think that they were solid bulkheads. If you look at these profiles, you’ll see five voids in each panel in an X shape. Incredibly, the
Combrig part has this same design on the outside bulkheads.
The other two parts on the wafer are the searchlight platforms of the flying deck.
There are eleven resin runners with the smaller parts. One runner has just the center deck house with flared platform that secures the flying deck with the main deck. Both forward and aft superstructure are on separate runners. Each part has four resin
flues connecting the superstructures to their runners. Use patience and care in removing parts from their runners if you use a high speed cutting wheel. With some parts like the stacks and smaller deck houses, there isn’t much room between the part
and the runner. You certainly don’t want to cut into the part. There is a lot more clearance with the two large superstructure runners. There are significant differences in the forward and aft superstructures. The sides of the two parts are similar. Both
have bulkhead doors and square windows but the bow piece has a cutout forward for a separate bow reinforcement part, as well as anchor washboards. The stern bulkheads have portholes to go along with square windows, side strakes, and what
otherwise would appear to be antenna bases, except the Inflexible had no antennas because wireless had yet to be invented. The deck on the forward structure is especially packed with detail. All six 20pdr secondary guns were located here and each one
has iron rails like a Civil War pivot gun. Other detail here are two inclined ladder wells, a skylight, and locater positions for the fore mast, bridge and first funnel. The deck detail on the aft superstructure part has three inclined ladder wells, three skylights,
deck edge equipment positions, more of those Nat’s crazy circles with raised rims and even some coal scuttles. Locater positions are present for the main mast, aft funnel and aft deck winch.

The next largest parts are on a runner. This runner has both funnels and smaller parts of the ship’s superstructure. The funnels are fairly intricate with a thicker casing at the base and an apron above the casing. There are three reinforcing bands on the
narrower top portion of the funnel, ending in an intricate cap, which includes vertical and horizontal flaring and detail inside the cap. The other superstructure parts are the conning tower, with vision slits, the chart house/bridge with windows, and the
deck house on the flying deck, which has door hinge detail. Another runner has a V shaped part, which is the built up area halfway up the cutwater at the juncture of the hull and forward superstructure. On each side are deep anchor hawse fittings. Also
on this runner are the anchors, anchor davits, torpedo boat torpedo mounts and torpedoes, and navigation equipment. Lighter armament can be found on another runner. First there are the six 20pdr secondary guns. They are very nice and look like a
short fat carronade. There are also four early machine guns with four barrels abreast, like a French mitrailleuse. Also on this runner are two large deck winches and two boilers for the open ship’s steam launches. All of the ventilation cowls are on one
runner with seven different patterns. Another runner has the four stubby 16-inch gun barrels with large hollow muzzles, searchlights, signal lamps, detailed windlasses, and steam launch machinery. The last three runners has the ship’s boats, including
the 2nd class 60-foot torpedo boat. In addition to the torpedo-boat there are two steam launches, which are different from each other. The torpedo-boat is a real treat with troughs at the bow for the separate torpedoes, a triangular deck house,
commander’s cupola, coal scuttles and other fittings. The steam launches have cockpit, deck and engine space detail.  The other two boat runners have the open boats, ranging in size from a large whaler to a small dinghy. These all have thwart and
bottom plank detail.
A full brass photo-etch fret is included. This has a lot of parts you normally don’t see like eight ratlines with tie down block and tackle for the two masts and rectangular mast platforms seen on sailing ships. This is not surprising since the 1881 fit
carried a sail rig. There are at least four relief-etched platforms on the fret. Inclined ladders have safety railing and trainable treads. Among the many brass parts, other parts are ship’s wheels, boat rudders, boat davits, boat oars, numerous parts for the
boat skid, hand-wheels, brackets, support gussets, and others. Different types of railing are provided. Most of these have a bottom gutter but a few have open stanchions.

The instruction set has the same color coding found in the
Combrig Cressy kit. The resin parts in green, the photo-etch parts orange, self made masts, yards, and spars in medium blue and the hull in turquoise. There are seven sheets with thirteen pages
of instructions. Page one is the plan and profile and history in Russian. Unusually for
Combrig instructions, the profile has no indications of the rig. This probably because the sailing rig would be complicated. Page two is the resin parts laydown. Page
three is a blow up of the brass fret. Page four is a large template of the masts, yards, spars, booms and other parts that the modeler will have to fabricate from plastic or brass rods. Page five starts the assembly modules with modules on turret,
secondary gun, machine gun, ship’s wheel and streaming anchor assembly. Each module shows the parts used in the assembly and finished appearance. The numbers used in the assembly step match the numbers on the brass fret or the numbers
assigned to the resin parts in the resin parts laydown. Page six does the same thing with the ship’s boats. Page seven has assembly of the two masts. Page eight covers the flying deck and boat skid. Page nine has initial superstructure and turret
attachment, along with deck railing and accommodation ladders. Page ten concludes the midship assembly. Page eleven has the forecastle and quarterdeck assemblies, wile page twelve concentrates on ship’s boats attachment. The last page has mast
attachment.
Join The Ocean Swell and Boy Captain Jacky Fisher as the monster 16-Inch muzzle loading rifles of Jacky’s new command, HMS Inflexible, blast the pantaloons off the mutinous soldiers of Ahmed Urabi, who had just slaughtered 150 Europeans in
Alexandria. You can with the
Combrig  multimedia 1:700 scale model of HMS Inflexible in her 1881 fit, which will please the Queen Empress. After all, Inflexible is DNC Nathaniel Barnaby’s most startling and powerful design.

Steve Backer
Huntsville, Alabama
_________________________