The type of ship classed as frigate has an ancient lineage. In the age of sail a frigate was a fully rigged, three masted ship with a single gun deck,
faster but smaller than a ship of the line, which had multiple gun decks. Frigates served in a wide variety of roles with the fleet, such as scouting or
repeating signals, as well as quit often serving as the ship of choice for individual missions, independent of the fleet. They were popular for captains
as well as crew because they were far more likely to capture prizes than a ponderous ship of the line. However, the passing of sail and the arrival of
steam, after a short period of time the term frigate disappeared by the end of the 19th century.

The frigate reappeared as a type during the Second World War to describe a low displacement, rather slow warship that was armed for
anti-submarine warfare. Smaller and much slower than a destroyer escort, much less than a destroyer, the ships did not need speed to hunt German
U-Boats. That equation changed again with the appearance of the Type XXI U-boat at the end of the war, as this stream lined U-Boat was far faster
with much longer endurance submerged than any of the previous U-Boat designs. A slow, light displacement ship could not hunt this evolution of the
submarine.
After the war with rise of the threat of the Soviet Navy submarine program, the Royal Navy revisited the design of the frigate to completely redesign
the type as a warship still specifically designed for anti-submarine operations but with a much higher speed and greater weapons complement,
resulting in a much larger ship than the WW2 designs. Various earlier designs went to the fleet but the final refinement resulted in the
Leander Class
frigates, which divided into various subclasses. Known as the Type 12 a subdivided into the
Whitby, Rothesay and Leander classes, the ships
started entering service in 1963 with last of the class,
HMS Ariadne, being completed in 1973. The Leander class was so successful that in addition
to their decade long construction period, 67 warships for service in six different navies. But even during the heyday of the class a new evolution of
the submarine impacted their suitability for their primary mission, that of anti-submarine warfare. The
Leanders were excellent at counter the huge
Soviet fleet of diesel powered submarines but the much higher submerged speed of nuclear powered submarines eroded much of the benefits of the
Leander class. Another factor operating against the Leander revolved around their size and displacement. Around 2,000 - 2,150 tons displacement,
the Lenders were too small for multi-purpose warships. They were specialized by their weapons fits. Most were fitted for anti-submarine operations
but ASW weapons platforms provided no protection against an aerial threat. If they were to operate with a task force, additional AA warships had to
be included as well.

In 1967 the Royal Navy examined its needs for future types of warships and two very different types of frigate need were developed. One was a
cheap patrol frigate and one was a larger missile armed frigate capable of multiple missions as a follow on to the
Leanders. The cheap patrol frigate
requirement was filled eventually by the Type 21 frigate and the larger multi-purpose frigate requirement was filled by the Type 22 frigate. Eight
Type 21 frigates were built and entered service from 1974 to 1978. They introduced gas turbine propulsion and computer controlled weapons but
these innovations maxed their design, which for the sake of costs kept modest. They simply did not have the space or size for continued evolution
to meet evolving threats. The Type 22 was different. Designed for multi-purpose operations, they were larger and had the room to evolve as new
weapons systems were developed.
Initial production emphasis was placed on construction of the Type 42 destroyer and Type 21 frigate, so the Type 22 production was placed on the
low burner for a while. Their development was further delayed due to efforts to coordinate their development and construction with the Royal
Dutch Navy, which also wanted to replace their
Leanders with the Type 22 design. Prompted by political and economic reasons, although the idea
was sound in concept, it was not practical to compromise the Royal Navy requirements for the needs of the Dutch Navy. The entire effort resulted
in nothing, other than a delay of the Type 22 for the Royal Navy.

Design of the Type 22 frigate was completed in July 1972 and a contract was placed with Yarrow Shipbuilders for a detailed production design.
The final production design was significantly larger and far heavier than the Type 12
Leanders. However, in true Royal Navy tradition, the design
was still limited to conform to the maximum size that could use the Royal Navy Frigate Refit Complex at Devonport Dockyard. For centuries Royal
Navy designs were limited to the size of existing support facilities in contrast to the philosophy of other navies, such as the Imperial German Navy,
whose designs were produced to fit the needs of the navy and support facilities built to accommodate the larger designs. The Type 22 shared a lot
of commonality with the Type 21 frigates and Type 42 destroyers, especially when it comes to the power plant and propulsion. To keep the
production costs lower all three types use the same Olympus/Tyne gas turbine engines and the same drive shafts. Although designed primarily for
ASW, the RN requirement for General Purpose Operations also provided room for surface and anti-aircraft weapons platforms. In a first for the
Royal Navy a main gun was not fitted to the initial Type 22 units. Instead the frigates relied upon surface to surface missile systems. The final
production design was 430-feet (131m) in length, 49-feet (14,8m) in beam and 20-feet (6.1m) in draught. Displacement was 4,400-tons, double
that of the
Leanders, which the Type 22 replaced. The weapons fit was four MM38 Exocet SSM missiles for surface action, which many
considered too few to justify suppression of a main gun. For anti-aircraft operations the initial Type 22 was fitted with two sextuple GWS25
Seawolf AAM, one twin Oerlikon 30mm/75 gun mount and two Oerlikon 20mm BMARC GAM-B01 guns. For anti-submarine operations they were
fitted with two triple STWS torpedo tubes and most importantly a hangar to support two Lynx helicopters for AS missions. The Type 22 design
was significantly more expensive to build than the Type 21 frigates and Type 42 destroyers, so construction orders were parceled out slowly. The
gas turbine engines produced a maximum speed of 30-knots.
Four ships were ordered to this design and became known as the Type 22 Batch One frigates. The initial ship was HMS Broadsword, ordered from
Yarrow on February 8, 1974, laid down on February 7, 1975, launched on May 12, 1976, and commissioned on May 4, 1979. Each year saw another
of the Batch One destroyers laid down,
Battleaxe in 1976, Brilliant in 1977 and Brazen in 1978, as the Royal Navy only ordered one unit per year
from Yarrow. Costs escalated dramatically from 68 million sterling for
Broadsword to 112 million sterling for Brazen. As the Type 22 Batch One
frigates were under construction and entering service, the Royal Navy was working on an improved design primarily to accommodate a type 2031
towed sonar array, bow sonar, and additional space for additional weapons and sensors. This design became known as the Type 22 Batch Two
frigates. This resulted in a much longer ship as the Batch Two design was 51-feet longer than the Batch One design. Length was 481-feet (146.5m),
beam was the same but draught increased slightly to 21-feet (6.4m). The displacement rose to 4,800-tons. The extra length was permitted because the
Royal Navy or more likely, the civilian government saw the wisdom of increasing the size of the Frigate Refit Complex. The armaments fit didn’t
change from the Batch One ships but more sensors were fitted because of the extra space. Although the bow was sharply raked to allow for a bow
sensor, the sensor was not fitted. Six of the Batch Two were ordered from 1979 to 1982. These were
Boxer, Beaver, Brave, London (ex-
Bloodhound), Sheffield (ex-Bruiser), and Coventry (ex-Boadicea). The last two ships were renamed for Type 42 destroyers lost in the Falklands. I
would have preferred to have a
HMS Bruiser but to be fair the name Sheffield has a rich Royal Navy tradition and is more appropriate to have in
active service with the Royal Navy. The renaming of the
Bloodhound to London was at the request of the City of London to preserve the name on
the active list as the previous
HMS London, a County Class missile destroyer, was sold to Pakistan in February 1982. The last two were ordered
from Swan Hunter instead of Yarrow. Starting with
HMS Brave, Olympus engines were replaced by Spey gas turbine engines. The Batch Two design
might have been the end of the line for the Type 22 frigates but for one event. The Falklands War generated the information of combat operations that
resulted in the third design, known as the Type 22 Batch Three frigates.

Only two of the Type 22 Batch One frigates,
HMS Broadsword and HMS Brilliant were actively engaged in combat operations in the Falklands War,
where they were very successful in fleet defense. As by far the greatest threat was the Argentine Air Force, whose pilots were extremely brave and
skilled, the Sea Wolf SSM of the Type 22 was essential and lived up to all of the expectations for the system. Both Type 22 frigates were damaged
through air attacks but provided more resilient and survived in marked contrast to the Type 42 destroyer and Type 21 frigate both of which lost two
of their class to Argentine air attacks. Maybe they were just lucky as
Broadsword was hit with a bomb, which hit the ocean first and bounced upward
through the side and exiting the flight deck to fall in the ocean without exploding. The four Exocet missiles might be fine for NATO North Atlantic
operations but were supercargo in the barroom brawls with the Argentine Air Force. What would have come in handy would have been a dual
purpose main gun. Oops, the Type 22 didn’t have one. Accordingly the Type 22 Batch Three frigate design was developed. The length was slightly
increased to 486-feet (148.1m) but the beam and draught was the same as the Batch Two ships. The big change was to the weapons fit where only
the Sea Wolf AAM system, which proved to be excellent at the Falklands, and STWS AS torpedo mounts were retained. The four Exocet SSM were
replaced by two quadruple Harpoon SSM RGM-84 mounts. Instead of the assorted Oerlikons, a Goalkeeper 30mm CIWS was fitted. Finally a main
gun finally appeared on the Type 22 with a single 4.5-inch/55 (114mm) Mk. 8 fitted. Four of the Type 22 Batch Three ships were built,
Cornwall in
1982,
Cumberland in 1984, Campbeltown and Chatham in 1985. Yarrow received the order for the first two but a new builder Cammell Laird built
the
Campbeltown and Swan Hunter for the Chatham. In the case of the Swan Hunter for Batch Two and Three ships and Cammell Laird for
Campbeltown orders, Yarrow didn’t build these ships due to political “spread the wealth” reasons.
HMS Campbeltown Type 22 Batch Three frigate was ordered in January 1985 from the Cammel Laird Yard in Birkenhead. She was laid down
December 4, 1985, launched October 7, 1987, accepted by the Royal Navy on February 24, 1989 and finally commissioned on May 27, 1989. The
cost of
Campbeltown was 161.97 million sterling. The ship’s bell was carried by HMS Campbeltown, Town Class destroyer, famous for ramming
the St Nazaire drydock and then exploding to destroy the dock in World War Two. The Pennant number was F86 and deck sign CT. The ship’s
motto was
Victoria Fortes Sequitur "Victory Through Strength".  

Early in 2004 she became part of NATO’s Standing Naval Force Atlantic.
Campbeltown’s last tour was from 2007-2008 in the Persian Gulf where
she participated in Operations Calash and Telic. She underwent refit in 2008, which lasted into 2009. One have expected and active and long service
life after her refit but fate was not kind to
HMS Campbeltown Type 22 frigate. A Strategic Defense Review of 2010 called for the scrapping of all of
the Type 22 frigates, along with one aircraft carrier (
HMS Illustrious), five Type 42 destroyers, decommissioning HMS Ark Royal, as well as
reducing manpower from 5,000 to 30,000 men in a major effort to cut costs and reduce the budget deficit. She was decommissioned on April 7, 2011
and sold for scrap to a Turkish breakers firm in July 2013.
Orange Hobby has produced a superlative multi-media model of HMS Campbeltown Type 22 Batch Three frigate in 1:700 scale. A frigate is not a
large model, even for the big, burly Type 22 frigates but this
Orange Hobby kit is loaded down with fine quality parts. The hull and fittings are cast
resin but there is also turned brass parts and six frets of brass photo-etch, not to mention the decals. The resin casting for the hull is very good. I
can’t say that it was flawless because my sample had three minuscule pin-hole voids on the waterline from tint air bubbles trapped in the resin pour.
One drop off white glue, smoothed off, fixes those problems. Unlike other 1:700 resin ship kits, the Orange Hobby Campbeltown doesn’t have a flat
resin bottom. Instead the interior is hollow and
Orange Hobby uses wide casting vents along the hull sides to pour the resin. These vents provide no
obstacle to removal, as they are offset inboard from the hull sides, instead of being flush with the sides. That’s it for the hull clean up. A lot of the
hull and superstructure detail is cast integral to the hull. Superstructure doors are indented with brass doors and coamings so that doors can be
shown open or closed, adding dynamism and variation to the built and final appearance. Other integral detail includes piping, equipment access
hatches, under deck supports, solid bulkhead supports, bridge widows, and hangar access and flight gear detail. That is for the hull/superstructure
side detail. Deck detail is also plentiful and includes access hatches, gun mount base detail, and anchor equipment, among other items. My only
quibble with the hull casting involves the two scuttles on each side of the forecastle solid bulkhead. They are not open but can easily be opened with
care and a fine hobby knife or pin vise.

The other resin parts consist of the large funnel on its own casting block and six runners/sprues of smaller resin parts. The funnel and its
superstructure base does have the same fine detail, including cooling louver detail, as the hull casting, however it is attached to a rather substantial
casting block that will require care in its removal. It is not a big detail as a Dremel and sanding will take care of it, or if you want to go the manual
route, sanding only. When it comes to resin parts on runners, I have two components to evaluate. The most important of course, is the detail and
quality of the parts themselves. The second factor is the amount of effort necessary to remove the part from a runner and the amount of flash to be
removed. I’m happy to state that
Orange Hobby smaller are excellent on the first criteria and outstanding on the second. The runner (C runner)
with the largest resin parts include the funnel cap, two mast towers, gun turret, and Harpoon racks. Starting with the Harpoon racks, they are very
fine and delicate and one fell off the sprue as soon as I touched it. To say that there was no flash is incorrect, as couple of the parts had very small
and thin flash that takes nothing more than a finger to remove. The funnel cap had all four vents open but there was almost transparent film to be
punched out in the vents. The two tower masts, the main mast is the larger of the two, have good detail on their side. The other parts were the
Harpoon racks and 4.5-inch gun turret. Each part has its part number used in the instructions shown on the runner base. No longer do you have to
find the location of a part by looking at the part. Just find the corresponding part number shown on the sprue in the instructions. Another runner (A
runner with parts A12 through A14) has only three parts, the helicopter and two side pontoons for the bird. The chopper has excellent detail but
most particularly, the side doors are open, showing the interior. You can actually show crew inside the helicopter. If you don’t want to, OK, there
are brass doors on one of the frets. Parts A01 through A12 are on a separate runner with 13 parts like communication domes, RHIB boats, radar and
others. B runner is numbered for parts B01 through B09 actually has 17 fine parts. Here you’ll find detailed Sea Wolf canisters, and base mounts,
Goalkeeper CIWS mount with separate Gatling barrels part, anchors and signal lamps. Two parts are on the D runner and are hull strengthening
strakes found on the hull sides under the bridge. Runner E has one small deck house and a lot of life preserver canisters.
Six frets of relief-etched brass and additional parts of turned brass. That’s a huge amount of additional detail provided by Orange Hobby. The four
major frets are lettered A through D, with two additional unlettered frets. Fret A concentrates on the railing, with custom designed runs of railing for
each location instead of generic railing cut to length. Also included is the solid bulkhead in front of the bridge. The balance of this fret has most of the
smaller brass parts that don’t within a particular category and consist of parts as small as tower foot rungs. Although the parts are numbered, there is
no description of the parts and it is necessary to examine the instructions to find the part number to determine where they attach. Given the numbers
of parts provided, it is undoubtedly best to assemble the kit in the sequence shown in the instructions and not skip ahead. Fret B concentrates on the
mast and yard parts but also includes brackets for the Harpoon tubes, boat platforms, sensor platforms and a few door frames with doors that can be
positioned open or closed. Fret C contains the bulk off the doors, the various frames for the life raft canisters, flight deck safety netting, Sea Wolf
mount frames, a small solid tower on the aft superstructure for
Cambeltown and an open frame tower if one is building HMS Cumberland. Fret D
has the hangar doors, anchor chain, a circular platform, flag and jack staffs and ship’s boats frames. One of the unlettered frets has all of the
helicopter parts, which include rotors in deployed or stored configuration, tail rotor, tail stabilizers, doors, and front canopy frame. The last unlettered
fret is the smallest with only two parts 112 and 113, which is railing and an outboard frame on the hull edge on the starboard walkway around the
hangar. A bag of turned brass parts provides the Harpoon canisters, main gun, communication mast, and a couple of communication domes.
Orange
Hobby
provides a decal sheet for the flight deck markings, hull sides and stern pennant numbers for Cambeltown (F86) and Cumberland (F85), Sea
Wolf warning circles, main gun warning lines, funnel crests for both ships, flight deck recognition code markings with CT for
Cambeltown and CL
for
Cumberland and of course the National flag and White Ensigns.

There are four sheets of instructions, three of which are back-printed. There is minimal text but very clear drawings, and each part numbered to
conform to the part numbers on the resin runners or brass frets. They present a fairly concise and very logical method to build the kit.  Page one has
profiles and plans for both
Cambeltown and Cumberland, as well as the module for the helicopter construction. Page two starts with the actual ship
construction and concentrates on the bow with modules for the port and starboard sides and separate insets for the main gun, Sea Wolf mounts and
Sea Wolf directors. Page two has a module for the starboard amidships and funnel with separate insets for the CIWS, Harpoon positions and a little bit
more detail for the forward Sea Wolf mount. Page four has the port amidships module, and aft superstructure. Page five has the port and starboard aft
construction modules, hangar and flight deck modules. Separate insets show the three different types of life raft canisters and frames. Page six is
devoted to the fore and after tower masts. The final page concludes with the ship’s boat platform and frames and hull strakes used for
Campbeltown
but not for
Cumberland.
The Orange Hobby is a very impressive kit chock-a-block with high quality resin parts. With six brass photo-etch frets, as well as turned brass parts
to complement the finely cast resin parts, the
Orange Hobby Campbeltown is a complex kit. Because of high number of brass parts, it is not
recommended for a beginner but is a veritable gold mine for the experienced.